Psycholinguistics is the scientific study of language and its relationship with the human mind. It primarily focuses on how people use words, phrases, and sentences to convey meaning. In recent years, the gambling industry has taken advantage of psycholinguistics by using it as a marketing tool for their casinos, which are providing variety of gambling games and slots on different themes such as x men games on line and bonuses, etc. The use of psycholinguistic structure in casinos involves creating an atmosphere that triggers certain emotions in players. For instance, the sound of slot machines or the sight of flashing lights and colorful graphics are designed to create excitement and stimulate pleasure centers in the brain. These psychological tactics can be so effective that some players find themselves playing for hours without realizing it. Moreover, casinos also use language to influence players’ behavior. The way casino games are marketed often employs persuasive language patterns intended to make players feel special or lucky.
The Psycholinguistic approach (Stackhouse and Wells 1997) is a model used by Speech and Language Therapists to investigate the underlying nature of children’s speech, language and or literacy difficulties and target intervention accordingly.
This can include:
- Speech development
- Phonological awareness
- Literacy skills
How does it work?
Whilst traditional speech therapy may consider solely the child’s output of speech and language (e.g. working on the production of correct articulation of speech sounds); this model also takes into consideration the organisation of sounds and words within the child’s linguistic system; for example, has the child stored the word or speech sound correctly? Is the child hearing the difference between certain speech sounds?
Taking the word ‘cat,’ information about this word will be stored within a person’s vocabulary (lexicon) as follow:
- Semantic representation – knowing what the word ‘cat’ means (e.g. pet, furry, four legs).
- Phonological representation –Identifying the word ‘cat’ from auditory (hearing) and visual (e.g. lip reading) cues and discriminating it from similar words such as ‘tat’ or ‘cap.’
- Motor program – Knowing how to say the word ‘cat’ and not having to think about it every time it is produced.
- Grammatical representation – Knowing how to use the word ‘cat’ in a sentence (e.g.” I’m going to feed the cat” or “look there are two cats”).
- Orthographic representation – Knowing how to spell ‘cat’ and can understanding it when it is seen it in written format.
Speech and language therapists working within the psycholinguistic framework will therefore use activities aimed at tapping into specific areas of the child’s linguistic system in order to identify areas of difficulty. Intervention targets are then set and worked on accordingly, using the child’s existing strengths as a foundation for therapy.
Stackhouse J and Wells B (1997) Children’s Speech and Literacy Difficulties A psycholinguistic framework London: Whurr
Stackhouse J and Wells B (2001) Children’s Speech and Literacy Difficulties 2 Identification and Intervention London: Whurr